The Effects of School Safety on Academic Achievement
Evidence from Rwanda, Tanzania, and Zambia
Safe learning environments can be threatened by internal threats, such as bullying, corporal punishment, and gang recruitment, external threats, such as attacks on schools, and environmental threats, such as natural disasters. All these threats have the potential to significantly decrease students’ academic performance. While a growing body of research points to a connection between school environments and student outcomes, much remains unknown about the effect of perceived school safety on learning. Most evidence originates from middle and high-income countries and focuses on educational outputs, such as attendance and retention, rather than educational achievement. More quantitative analysis of the relationship between school safety and student performance in developing countries is needed.
The research objective of this study is to identify the causal direction and magnitudes of student and teacher perception of safety on learning outcomes in Rwanda, Tanzania, and Zambia through a quasi-experimental analysis.