Affordable Non-State Schools in Contexts of Crisis and Conflict
While significant research has been performed on both non-state education and education in crisis and conflict-affected countries, little has been written on their intersection. This study examines the role of affordable non-state schools (ANSS) in conflict and crisis settings, with a focus on basic education. In this report, ANSS are defined as formal and non-formal education institutions that are owned or operated by non-state entities such as private citizens, faith-based organizations, or NGOs, and that target lower-income or marginalized populations. The report offers a number of contributions to the scarce body of literature on this topic, including a synthesis of existing literature on the themes of conflict and crisis and non-state education, a new conceptual framework for understanding the role of ANSS in crisis and conflict-affected settings, and case studies of non-state education in El Salvador and Kaduna State, Nigeria. These components were then used to formulate recommendations for donor and government engagement with non-state schools in these settings.